Daily Archives: 2014-09-22

Quick Guide to Vagrant on Amazon EC2

Here’s a really quick guide to using Vagrant to create virtual machines on Amazon Web Services EC2. I’ve gotten a lot of use out of Vagrant for local development, but sometimes it’s helpful to build out VMs in the cloud. (In particular, if your local machine isn’t very powerful.)

These steps assume you already have Vagrant installed and have an Amazon Web Services account (and know how to use both).

Installation

First you’ll need to install the Vagrant AWS plugin:

vagrant plugin install vagrant-aws
vagrant box add dummy https://github.com/mitchellh/vagrant-aws/raw/master/dummy.box

Next login to your Amazon AWS console to get a few things:

  • AWS access key
  • AWS secret key
  • SSH keypair name
  • SSH private key file (.pem extension)
  • Make sure the default security group enables SSH (port 22) access from anywhere

I like to set these up as environment variables to keep them out of the Vagrantfile. On Mac or Linux systems you can add this to your ~.profile file:

export AWS_KEY='your-key'
export AWS_SECRET='your-secret'
export AWS_KEYNAME='your-keyname'
export AWS_KEYPATH='your-keypath'

Vagrantfile

Now we can configure our Vagrantfile with the specifics needed for AWS. Refer to the vagrant-aws documentation to understand all the options. In the example below we have all the AWS-related settings in the x.vm.provider :aws block:

VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION = "2"
Vagrant.configure(VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION) do |config|
  config.vm.define :delta do |x|
    x.vm.box = "hashicorp/precise64"
    x.vm.hostname = "delta"

    x.vm.provider :virtualbox do |v|
      v.name = "delta"
    end

    x.vm.provider :aws do |aws, override|
      aws.access_key_id = ENV['AWS_KEY']
      aws.secret_access_key = ENV['AWS_SECRET']
      aws.keypair_name = ENV['AWS_KEYNAME']
      aws.ami = "ami-a7fdfee2"
      aws.region = "us-west-1"
      aws.instance_type = "m3.medium"

      override.vm.box = "dummy"
      override.ssh.username = "ubuntu"
      override.ssh.private_key_path = ENV['AWS_KEYPATH']
    end
  end
end

See this Github gist for a longer example file.

Now you can bring up the VM by specifying the AWS plugin as the provider:

vagrant up --provider=aws

After about a minute, the VM should be up and running and available for SSH:

$ vagrant up --provider=aws
Bringing machine 'delta' up with 'aws' provider...
==> delta: Launching an instance with the following settings...
==> delta:  -- Type: m3.medium
==> delta:  -- AMI: ami-a7fdfee2
==> delta:  -- Region: us-west-1
==> delta:  -- Keypair: briancantoni
==> delta:  -- Block Device Mapping: []
==> delta:  -- Terminate On Shutdown: false
==> delta:  -- Monitoring: false
==> delta:  -- EBS optimized: false
==> delta:  -- Assigning a public IP address in a VPC: false
==> delta: Waiting for instance to become "ready"...
==> delta: Waiting for SSH to become available...
==> delta: Machine is booted and ready for use!
==> delta: Rsyncing folder: /Users/briancantoni/dev/vagrant/aws/ => /vagrant

$ vagrant ssh
Welcome to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 3.13.0-29-generic x86_64)

ubuntu@ip-172-31-30-167:~$

Notes

  • You need to configure a specific AMI for Vagrant to use. I find the Ubuntu Amazon EC2 AMI Finder very helpful to match the version and region I wanted to use.
  • A common tripping point is the default security group not allowing SSH (port 22) from any IP address. Also make sure to add any other ports depending on your application (e.g., port 80 for HTTP).
  • Once you have the basics working, make sure to read through the vagrant-aws project to understand all the options available.
  • Make sure to vagrant destroy your VMs when done, and check the AWS Console to make sure they were terminated correctly (to avoid unexpected charges).